Genocides in the Twentieth and the Twenty-First Centuries


Scope & Purpose

The bibliography is intended for undergraduate students. It will introduce you to the major research resources, leading scholars, and the most influential books associated with researching the history of the twentieth-century genocides.

It consists of a series of annotated bibliographies comprised of the following types of sources:

  • reference sources, providing background information on specific topics within the study of a particular genocide
  • academic titles, including key texts and recent titles by leading scholars
  • primary sources, including books and digital collections (containing digitized primary sources from archives, libraries, and museums, such as photographs, diaries, correspondence, testimonies, and eyewitness accounts)
  • major academic journals, providing the most recent research that advances the existing scholarship and book reviews on recently published scholarly monographs on the topic.

Topics on reconciliation, the aftermath, the legacy of the genocides or the trials and prosecution of the persons who planned and perpetuated the crimes against humanity are not included in the scope of the bibliography.

It was originally compiled by librarian Gabbi Zaldin. It is currently maintained by Agatha Barc, Reader Services and Instruction Librarian.

Encyclopedias & Handbooks

Encyclopedia of War Crimes and Genocide
Horvitz, Leslie Alan

Examines the contemporary history of crimes against humanity, covering a wide range of relevant topics, including human rights, war crimes, prevention of human-rights abuses, prosecution, and cultural representations, with an extensive collection of primary sources.

Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity
Shelton, Dinah L., editor

An excellent, comprehensive sourcebook on modern and ancient genocides: incitement and resistance, perpetrators and victims, cultural memory and representation, international institutions and laws, and the influence of mass killings on music, literature, and art. Includes a large selection of primary sources.

The Oxford Handbook of Genocide Studies
Bloxham, Donald., and Moses A. Dirk

A collection of scholarly essays analyzing the history of the genocides committed since the antiquity to the late twentieth century, including colonial genocides. Examines the atrocities from sociological, philosophical, anthropological, and legal perspectives. An extensive bibliography accompanies each essay.

General Introductory Books

Axis Rule in Occupied Europe: Laws of Occupation, Analysis of Government, Proposals for Redress
Lemkin, Raphael

Lemkin (1900–1959), a lawyer, activist, and academic coined the term “genocide” in this study and defined it as a subject of international law. 

Genocide: Its Political Use in the Twentieth Century
Kuper, Leo

An important text that influenced the direction and aims of the scholarship undertaken by researchers in Genocide Studies in the latter part of the twentieth century. Kuper examines the legal definition of genocide as articulated in the the UN Convention on Genocide (1948).

Fifty Key Thinkers on the Holocaust and Genocide
Bartrop, Paul R., and Steven L. Jacobs

Critically discusses the works of fifty of the most influential scholars involved in the study of the Holocaust and genocide. Studying each scholar’s background and influences, the authors examine the ways in which their major works have been received by critics and supporters, and analyse each thinker’s contributions to the field.

Key figures discussed range from historians and philosophers, to theologians, anthropologists, art historians and sociologists, including: Hannah Arendt, Christopher Browning, Primo Levi, Raphael Lemkin, Jacques Sémelin, Saul Friedländer, Samantha Power, Hans Mommsen, Emil Fackenheim, Helen Fein, Adam Jones, Ben Kiernan, and other scholars.

Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction
Jones, Adam. 3rd ed.

An invaluable introduction to the subject of genocide, explaining its history from pre-modern times to the present day, with a wide variety of case studies.

The book examines the differing interpretations of genocide from psychology, sociology, anthropology and political science and analyzes the influence of race, ethnicity, nationalism and gender on genocides.

Genocide: The Basics
Bartrop, Paul R.

An accessible, concise introduction to the study of genocide, examining the issues of classifying genocide and cleansing, international justice, peacekeeping efforts, colonial genocides the Holocaust, mass suffering and killing perpetuated in the Ottoman Empire, South Sudan and Darfur, and other topics.

The Routledge History of Genocide
Carmichael, Cathie, and Richard Maguire, editors

Taking an interdisciplinary approach, this in-depth book examines genocide from the Iron Age to the recent past: Iron Age warfare, the end of the Ottoman Empire, Stalin and the Soviet Union, genocide and religion, Japanese military brutality during World War II, and how we remember the past.

Genocide: A World History
Naimark, Norman M.

Naimark argues that genocide can also involve the elimination of targeted social and political groups. He provides an insightful analysis of communist and anti-communist genocide, settler and colonial genocide in Africa, South America, and North America, the Armenian Genocide, the Holocaust, Rwanda, and Bosnia, in addition to Darfur and Congo.

Century of Genocide: Critical Essays and Eyewitness Accounts
Totten, Samuel., and William S. Parsons

Through powerful first-person accounts, scholarly analysis, and compelling narratives, the book details the causes and ramifications of the genocides perpetrated in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries.

Blood and Soil: A World History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur
Kiernan, Ben

Examines outbreaks of mass violence from the classical era to the present, focusing on worldwide colonial exterminations and twentieth-century case studies including the Armenian Genocide, the Nazi Holocaust, Stalin’s mass murders, and the Cambodian and Rwandan genocides.

The Killing Trap: Genocide in the Twentieth Century
Midlarsky, Manus I.

A comparative analysis of the genocides, politicides and ethnic cleansing of the twentieth century, which are estimated to have cost upwards of forty million lives

The Problems of Genocide: Permanent Security and the Language of Transgression
Moses, A. Dirk
Taking Lives: Genocide and State Power
Horowitz, Irving Louis

An important text in the study of genocide. Horowitz asserts that genocide is not a sporadic or random event, nor is it necessarily linked to economic development or social progress. Instead, he argues that genocide is a special sort of mass destruction conducted with the approval of the state apparatus.

The History and Sociology of Genocide: Analyses and Case Studies
Chalk, Frank Robert, and Kurt Jonassohn

The first comprehensive survey of the history and sociology of genocide committed from antiquity to the present. 

The authors present a typology of genocide according to the motives of the perpetrator: to eliminate a perceived threat; to spread terror among real or potential enemies; to acquire economic wealth; or to implement a belief, theory, or ideology.

“A Problem from Hell”: America and the Age of Genocide
Power, Samantha

In her award-winning analysis of the last century of American history, Power (a former Balkan war correspondent and founding executive director of the Harvard University Carr Center for Human Rights Policy) asks the question: why do American leaders who vow “never again” repeatedly fail to stop genocide?

Genocide & Gender

Women and Genocide: Gendered Experiences of Violence, Survival, and Resistance
DiGeorgio-Lutz, JoAnn, and Donna Gosbee, editors

Drawing from narratives, memoirs, testimonies, and literature, this book analyzes the genocides of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries (from Armenia in 1915 to Gujarat in 2002). The authors examine the roles of women as victims, witnesses, survivors, and rescuers.

Genocide and Gender in the Twentieth Century: A Comparative Survey
Randall, Amy E., editor

A collection of in-depth articles by leading genocide studies scholars in North America and Europe that examine gendered discourses, practices and experiences of ethnic cleansing and genocide in the twentieth century.

It includes essays focusing on the genocide in Rwanda, the Armenian Genocide in the Ottoman Empire, the Holocaust and ethnic cleansing and genocide in the former Yugoslavia.

Women in the Holocaust: A Feminist History
Waxman, Zoë

An important feminist study examining how gender operated as a crucial signifier for survival during the Holocaust and the gendered nature of the existing scholarship in Holocaust studies.

An Act of Genocide: Colonialism and the Sterilization of Aboriginal Women
Stote, Karen

Stote argues that this coercive sterilization of Indigenous women in Canada during the early twentieth century must be considered in relation to the larger goals of federal policy toward Indigenous Peoples, which was to gain access to Indigenous lands and resources and reduce the numbers of children being born to Aboriginal parents.

Major Scholarly Journals

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal
vol. 1, no. 1 (July 2006)–present

An interdisciplinary journal containing articles and case studies on the connection between genocide, mass violence and other human rights violations, and prevention and punishment of genocide and mass violence. Peer-reviewed.

Holocaust and Genocide Studies
vol. 1, no. 1 (1986)–present

A major international journal dedicated to the study of the Holocaust and other genocides, containing research articles, interpretive essays, and book reviews. Published by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Peer-reviewed.

Human Rights Quarterly: A Comparative and International Journal of the Social Sciences, Humanities, and Law
vol. 5, issue 1 (February 1983)–present

A leading journal in the field of human rights and policy analysis. Also includes philosophical essays on the fundamental nature of human rights as defined by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Peer-reviewed.

Journal of Genocide Research
vol. 1, no. 1 (Mar. 1999)–present

An interdisciplinary and comparative approach to the study of genocide and related topics, including crimes against humanity, war crimes and violence against civilians, and humanitarian intervention. Peer-reviewed.

Journal of International Criminal Justice
vol. 1, issue 1 (Apr. 2003)–present

Journal addresses the major problems of justice from the angle of law, jurisprudence, criminology, penal philosophy, and the history of international judicial institutions. Articles on genocide include topics such as war-crime trials, transitional justice, raparations, reconciliation, and others. Peer-reviewed.

Colonial Genocide

Indian School Days
Johnston, Basil

An autobiography of an Ojibwa who was taken from his family at age ten. In 1939, Johnston was placed in St. Peter Claver School For Boys, operated by the Jesuit Fathers in Spanish, a remote community in northern Ontario.

The Education of Augie Merasty: A Residential School Memoir
Merasty, Joseph Auguste, and David Carpenter

Merasty was one of an estimated 150,000 First Nations, Inuit, and Metis children who were taken from their families and sent to government-funded, church-run schools, where they were subjected to a policy of “aggressive assimilation.” As Merasty recounts, these schools did more than attempt to mold children in the ways of white society. They were taught to be ashamed of their Indigenous heritage and, as he experienced, often suffered physical and sexual abuse.

The Children Remembered: Residential School Archives Project
United Church Steering Committee on Residential Schools

A digital exhibition documenting the history of the residential schools operated throughout Canada by the Methodist Church Missionary Department or Society (and later, the United Church Board of Home Missions). The photographs are from the collections in the United Church Archives in Toronto and the Pacific Mountain Regional Council Archives in British Columbia.

Colonial Genocide in Indigenous North America
Woolford, Andrew, et al., editors

An important collection of essays that expands the geographic, demographic, and analytic scope of the term genocide to encompass the effects of colonialism and settler colonialism in North America, including Indigenous boarding school systems imposed by both the Canadian and American governments on Indigenous children.

Canada and Colonial Genocide
Woolford, Andrew, and Jeff Benvenuto, editors

Scholarly analyses of the multiple dimensions or processes of colonial destruction and their aftermaths in Canada.

Various acts of genocidal violence are covered, including residential schools, repressive legal or governmental controls, ecological destruction, and disease spread.

A Knock on the Door : the Essential History of Residential Schools from the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada
Fontaine, Phil

Published in collaboration with the National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation (NCTR), the book gathers key material from the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada reports to present the essential history and legacy of residential schools.

This Benevolent Experiment: Indigenous Boarding Schools, Genocide, and Redress in Canada and the United States
Woolford, Andrew

Woolford analyzes the formulation of the “Indian problem” as a policy concern in the United States and Canada. He examines how the Indigenous boarding schools were implemented in Manitoba and New Mexico through complex chains that included multiple government offices, a variety of staff, Indigenous peoples, and even nonhuman factors such as poverty, disease, and space.

E96 .W66 2015


A National Crime: The Canadian Government and the Residential School System, 1879–1986
Milloy, John S.

Using previously unreleased government documents, historian John S. Milloy provides a full picture of the history and reality of the residential school system.

The book demonstrates that the residential system was chronically underfunded and often mismanaged, and documents in detail and how this affected the health, education, and well-being of entire generations of Indigenous children.

The Sleeping Giant Awakens: Genocide, Indian Residential Schools, and the Challenge of Conciliation
MacDonald, David Bruce

In this book, MacDonald uses genocide as an analytical tool to better understand Canada’s past and present relationships between settlers and Indigenous Peoples.

Starting with a discussion of how genocide is defined in domestic and international law, the book applies the concept to the forced transfer of Indigenous children to residential schools and the “Sixties Scoop,” in which Indigenous children were taken from their communities and placed in foster homes or adopted.

An Act of Genocide: Colonialism and the Sterilization of Aboriginal Women
Stote, Karen

Stote argues that this coercive sterilization of Indigenous women in Canada during the early twentieth century must be considered in relation to the larger goals of federal policy toward Indigenous Peoples, which was to gain access to Indigenous lands and resources and reduce the numbers of children being born to Aboriginal parents.


The Armenian Genocide: the Essential Reference Guide
Whitehorn, Alan, editor

Contains entries on all aspects of the genocide, including the causes, phases, and consequences, historical timeline, and a selection of primary documents.

Visual History Archive
University of Southern California Shoah Foundation

A comprehensive, growing collection of audio-visual interviews with witnesses and survivors of the Holocaust and other genocides, including the Nanjing Massacre, genocide against the Tutsi in Rwanda, Armenian Genocide, Guatemalan Genocide, and the Cambodian Genocide.

The testimonies preserved by the VHA were recorded in sixty-two countries and forty-one languages.

Armenian Golgotha
Balakian, Grigoris

Balakian (1873–1934) was an intellectual and priest of the Armenian Church in Turkey. In April 1915, he was among the 250 Armenian intellectuals arrested in Constantinople.

This memoir, originally published in 1922, recounts describes the killings, rapes, robberies, and torture experienced by the Armenians from the Turkish population, both civilian and military.

The Treatment of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire, 1915–16
Bryce, James

The document collection is the largest single source of information on the atrocities committed against the Turkish Armenians between 1915 and 1916 by the Young Turk regime. 

Also known as The British Parliamentary Blue Book on The Treatment of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire, the dispatches were collected by Lord Bryce (1838–1922) on the request of the British government to gather information on the genocide. 

Ambassador Morgenthau’s Story
Morgenthau, Henry

Morgenthau, Sr. (1856–1946) was an Amerian ambassador to the Ottoman Empire from 1913 to 1916. His memoir, published in 1918, drew attention to the Armenian Genocide in the the chapter entitled “The Murder of a Nation” (pages 301–325). 

Also consult an article, “The Greatest Horror in History,” accompanied by photographs, which Morgenthau published in the Red Cross Magazine

Armenian Deportees: 1915–1916
Wegner, Armin T.

A diverse array of photographs secretly captured by Wegner (1886–1978), a pacifist and an officer in the medical corps of the German army.

His archive is a major visual evidence for studying the reality and extent of the devastations inflicted by the Turkish government on the Armenian minority.

The Young Turks’ Crime Against Humanity: The Armenian Genocide and Ethnic Cleansing in the Ottoman Empire
Akçam, Taner

Introducing new evidence from more than 600 secret Ottoman documents, this book demonstrates in unprecedented detail that the Armenian Genocide and the expulsion of Greeks from the late Ottoman Empire resulted from an official effort to rid the empire of its Christian subjects.

Burning Tigris: The Armenian Genocide and America’s Response
Balakian, Peter

A groundbreaking study of the Armenian Genocide, derived from archival documents and first-person accounts.

Awarded the Raphael Lemkin Prize for the best scholarly book on genocide by the Institute for Genocide Studies at John Jay College of Criminal Justice/CUNY Graduate Center.

The Armenian Genocide: A Complete History
Kévorkian, Raymond H.

An authoritative account of the origins, events and consequences of the years 1915 and 1916. Kévorkian considers the role that the Armenian Genocide played in the construction of the Turkish nation state and Turkish identity, as well as exploring the ideologies of power, rule and state violence.

Crucially, he examines the consequences of the violence against the Armenians, the implications of deportations and attempts to bring those who committed the atrocities to justice.

Revolution and Genocide: On the Origins of the Armenian Genocide and the Holocaust
Melson, Robert

In a study that compares the major attempts at genocide in world history, Melson creates a framework that links genocide to revolution and war.

He focuses on the plights of Jews after the fall of Imperial Germany and of Armenians after the fall of the Ottoman as well as attempted genocides in the Soviet Union and Cambodia.

The Great Game of Genocide : Imperialism, Nationalism, and the Destruction of the Ottoman Armenians
Bloxham, Donald

Addresses the origins, development and aftermath of the genocide, situating it within the interaction between the Ottoman Empire during its decline, the self-interested policies of the European imperial powers, and the agenda of some Armenian nationalists in and beyond the Ottoman territory.

“They Can Live in the Desert but Nowhere Else”: A History of the Armenian Genocide
Suny, Roy

A definitive narrative history of the genocide, analyzing the nationalist myths, propaganda, and denial to provide a critical account of why the atrocities of 1915–16 were committed.

Suny explores the psychological factors as well as the international and domestic events that led to genocide, drawing on archival documents and eyewitness accounts.

The Resistance Network: the Armenian Genocide and Humanitarianism in Ottoman Syria, 1915–1918
Mouradian, Khatchig

History of an underground network of humanitarians, missionaries, and diplomats in Ottoman Syria who helped save the lives of thousands during the Armenian Genocide.

Mouradian (a lecturer in Middle Eastern, South Asian, and African studies at Columbia University) challenges depictions of Armenians as passive victims of violence and subjects of humanitarianism, demonstrating the key role they played in organizing a humanitarian resistance against the destruction of their people.

The Holodomor

National Museum of the Holodomor-Genocide

The mandate of the museum is to preserve the memory of the victims and educate about the Holodomor as a genocide perpetuated against the Ukrainian nations by the Soviet Union. The website includes photographs, testimonies, a digital map of the locations of mass burials throughout Ukraine, and other extensive resources of the atrocity in both in English and Ukrainian. 

Share the Story: Commemorating the 80th Anniversary of the Holodomor

A collection of recorded stories shared by the survivors of the Holodomor. The interviews were recorded on video and include captions in English. Transcriptions in both Ukrainian and English accompany each testimonial. The witnesses describe both survival and death from starvation, food being confiscated from the suffering families, and the intimidation that the Soviet government perpetuated against the farmers. The sponsors of the project, created to commemorate the eightieth anniversary of the famine, was sponsored by the Ukrainian Canadian Congress and the Ukrainian World Congress, with many supporting partners.  

The Harvest of Sorrow: Soviet Collectivization and the Terror-Famine
Conquest, Robert

The first full history of one of the most horrendous human tragedies of the twentieth century. Conquest analyzes the period between 1929 and 1933 when the Soviet Communist Party orchestrated dekulakization, the dispossession and deportation of millions of peasant families, and collectivization (the abolition of private ownership of land and the concentration of the remaining peasants in party-controlled “collective” farms).

Soviet Genocide in Ukraine
Lemkin, Raphael
Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin
Snyder, Timothy
Stalin’s Genocides
Naimark, Norman M.

Naimark challenges the widely held notion that Stalin's crimes do not constitute genocide (which the United Nations defines as the premeditated killing of a group of people because of their race, religion, or inherent national qualities). He analyzes Stalin's systematic destruction of Soviet citizens in light of other genocides in history, from the liquidation and repression of the so-called kulaks, the Ukrainian famine, the purge of nationalities to the Great Terror.

Starving Ukraine: the Holodomor and Canada’s Response
Cipko, Serge

Through an extensive analysis of newspapers, political speeches, and organized protests, Cipko examines both the reporting of the famine and the Canadian response to it, highlighting the vital importance of journalism and the power of public demonstrations in shaping government action.

The Holocaust

The Holocaust Encyclopedia
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

A comprehensive reference work to the vast array of the topics and primary source documents associated with the history of the Holocaust. The article in the encyclopedia an be browsed by topic (such as the history of children during the Holocaust) and the type of content (oral history, photographs, and others).

Each entry is accompanied by primary sources and links to further resources.

Oxford Handbook of Holocaust Studies
Hayes, Peter, and John K. Roth, editors

An exhaustive introduction to the study and scholarship on the Holocaust, with detailed essays organized topically into five parts, from examining the broader contextual conditions that preceded the Holocaust to its aftermath and the impact on politics and ethics, education and religion, national identities and international relations, the prospects for genocide prevention, and the defense of human rights.

Visual History Archive
University of Southern California Shoah Foundation

A comprehensive, growing collection of audio-visual interviews with witnesses and survivors of the Holocaust and other genocides, including the Nanjing Massacre, genocide against the Tutsi in Rwanda, Armenian Genocide, Guatemalan Genocide, and the Cambodian Genocide.

The testimonies preserved by the VHA were recorded in sixty-two countries and forty-one languages.

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

A curated list of the artifacts and the documents housed in the collections of the museum, arranged by topic and types of items, including resistance, concentration camps, diaries, and photographs, and others. Many artifacts are digitized and can be accessed online through the list, as indicated under the “Digital Availability” heading.

Auschwitz–Birkenau Memorial and Museum

A comprehensive, illustrated history of the Konzentrationslager Auschwitz, describing the organization of the camps and the subcamps, prisoner classification, daily life, work, and survival, the fate of children in the camps, medical experiments undertaken by the Nazi doctors and scientists, prisoner resistance, and other topics.

Survival in Auschwitz: the Nazi Assault on Humanity; The Truce
Levi, Primo

Levi (1919–1987), a research chemist in Milan Italy and a member of an anti-fascist group, was captured by the Germans and sent to the Auschwitz concentration camp in Nazi-occupied Poland.

Originally published under the title If This Is a Man in 1947, the memoir and its sequel, The Truce (later retitled The Reawakening in 1958) chronicle Levi’s story of surviving concentration camp life.

Wiesel, Elie

Wiesel was born in Sighet, Romania on September 30, 1928. In 1944, he and his family were deported along with other Jews to Auschwitz, where his mother and younger sister perished.

The Collected Works
Frank, Anne

Includes each of the versions of Anne’s world-famous diary including the “A” and “B” diaries and the definitive text edited by Mirjam Pressler.

The anthology also contains Anne’s letters, family and personal photographs, reminiscences, daydreams, essays and notebook of favourite quotes. Scholarly essays explore such topics as the diarist’s life, her family, and the publication history of her diary.

The Origins of Totalitarianism
Arendt, Hannah. 2nd ed.

Arendt sought to provide an historical account of the forces that crystallized into totalitarianism: the ebb and flow of nineteenth-century anti-Semitism and the rise of European imperialism, accompanied by the invention of racism.

Modernity and the Holocaust
Bauman, Zygmunt

Among the conditions that made the mass extermination of the Holocaust possible, according to Bauman, the most decisive factor was modernity itself. Bauman’s provocative interpretation counters the tendency to reduce the Holocaust to an episode in Jewish history, or to one that cannot be repeated in the West precisely because of the progressive triumph of modern civilization.

The Destruction of the European Jews
Hilberg, Raul. 3rd ed.

First published in 1961, Raul Hilberg’s comprehensive account of how Germany annihilated the Jewish community of Europe has shaped the entire field of Holocaust studies.

This revised and expanded edition of Hilberg’s classic work extends the scope of his study and includes new material, particularly from archives in eastern Europe.

Hitler, the Germans, and the Final Solution
Kershaw, Ian

A comprehensive, multifaceted picture both of the destructive dynamic of the Nazi leadership and of the attitudes and behaviour of ordinary Germans as the persecution of the Jews spiraled into total genocide.

Women in the Holocaust: A Feminist History
Waxman, Zoë

An important feminist study examining how gender operated as a crucial signifier for survival during the Holocaust and the gendered nature of the existing scholarship in Holocaust studies.

Why? Explaining the Holocaust
Hayes, Peter

An exploration of the most commonly asked questions about the Holocaust challenges misconceptions and discusses how no single theory fully explains the tragedy, drawing on a wealth of scholarly research and experience to offer new insights.


Cambodian Genocide: The Essential Reference Guide
Bartrop, Paul R., editor

An comprehensive overview of the the Cambodian catastrophes of the 1960s, ’70s, and the ’80s, providing detailed scholarly articles on an array of topics: profiles of the main leaders involved in the Genocide, various strategies adopted by members of the international community in trying to address the issues created by the Pol Pot regime, and other aspects.

The encyclopedia is supplemented by key primary source documents and reading lists of additional secondary sources on the Genocide.

Visual History Archive
University of Southern California Shoah Foundation

A comprehensive, growing collection of audio-visual interviews with witnesses and survivors of the Holocaust and other genocides, including the Nanjing Massacre, genocide against the Tutsi in Rwanda, Armenian Genocide, Guatemalan Genocide, and the Cambodian Genocide.

The testimonies preserved by the VHA were recorded in sixty-two countries and forty-one languages.

Khmer Rouge Archives
Documentation Center of Cambodia

A selection of digitized primary sources and artifacts from the archives of the Documentation Center of Cambodia, a research institute and the largest repository of printed documents and other original historical materials associated with the Democratic Kampuchea regime.

Survivors’ Stories
Documentation Center of Cambodia

A collection of testimonies from the survivors of the genocide.

Survivors’ Stories
Digital Archive of Cambodian Holocaust Survivors

A collection of eyewitness accounts from the survivors of the genocide.

The Pol Pot Regime: Race, Power, and Genocide in Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge, 1975–79
Kiernan, Ben. 3rd ed.

In this comprehensive study of the Pol Pot regime, the author (Professor of History and Director of the Genocide Studies Program at Yale University) describes the violent origins, social context and course of the revolution, providing an answer to the question of why a group of Cambodian intellectuals imposed genocide on their own country.

Facing Death in Cambodia
Maguire, Peter

The book documents the atrocities and the aftermath through personal interviews with victims and perpetrators, discussions with international and NGO officials, journalistic accounts, and government sources.

It also examines the failures of the international community to confront the genocide.

Why Did They Kill? Cambodia and the Shadow of Genocide
Hinton, Alexander Laban

Hinton (Associate Professor of Anthropology, Rutgers University) focuses on the devastation that took place in Cambodia from April 1975 to January 1979 under the Khmer Rouge in order to explore why mass murder happens and what motivates perpetrators to kill.

Voices from S-21 : Terror and History in Pol Pot’s Secret Prison
Chandler, David

Chandler, a world-renowned historian of Cambodia, examines the Khmer Rouge phenomenon by focusing on one of its key institutions, the secret prison and interrogation centre outside Phnom Penh known by the code name “S–21.”

The Killing of Cambodia: Geography, Genocide and the Unmaking of Space
Tyner, James A.

Adapting a geographical approach to the study of the genocide, the author examines whether the Khmer Rouge’s activities not only led to genocide, but also “terracide” (the erasure of space).


Memory of Silence: The Guatemalan Truth Commission Report
Rothenberg, D., editor

An edited English translation of the report of The Guatemalan Commission for Historical Clarification (CEH), a truth commission that exposed the details of '“la violenca.”

Visual History Archive
University of Southern California Shoah Foundation

A comprehensive, growing collection of audio-visual interviews with witnesses and survivors of the Holocaust and other genocides, including the Nanjing Massacre, genocide against the Tutsi in Rwanda, Armenian Genocide, Guatemalan Genocide, and the Cambodian Genocide.

The collection includes indexed and archived video testimonies of witnesses of the Guatemalan Genocide, gathered by Fundación de Antropología Forense de Guatemala (FAFG), a Guatemalan forensics organization.

I, Rigoberta Menchú: An Indian Woman in Guatemala; Who Is Rigoberta Menchú?
Menchú, Rigoberta, and Greg Grandin

A major primary source associated with the persecution of the Mayans in Guatemala. In this memoir, Menchú, a Nobel Peace Prize-winner and Indigenous rights activist, recounts the suffering her family endured in the hands of the military dictatorship.

The accompanying volume by Grandin (Professor of History, Yale University) examines the criticism of Menchú by conservative historians and journalists, exploring the political and historical context of Menchú’s life and activism.


Quiet Genocide: Guatemala 1981–1983
Higonnet, Etelle

Examines the legal and historical case that genocide occurred in Guatemala and analyzes the events of 1981–1983 through the legal definition of genocide and crimes against humanity.

Terror in the Land of the Holy Spirit: Guatemala Under General Efraín Ríos Montt, 1982–1983
Garrard, Virginia

The first book in English on Rios Montt’s rule and the persecution of the indigenous Maya populations.

It is based on a vast array of primary sources such as guerrilla documents, evangelical pamphlets, speech transcripts, and declassified US government records.

The Origins and Dynamics of Genocide: Political Violence in Guatemala
Brett, Roddy

Rigorously documents and explains the genocide perpetrated by the Guatemalan state against indigenous Maya populations within the context of its counterinsurgency campaign against leftist guerrillas between 1981 and 1983.

The findings and the conclusions in the book are based upon over a decade of ethnographic research, including in survivors’ communities, documenting the historical processes that led to the genocide.

Bosnia & Kosovo

Bosnian Genocide: the Essential Reference Guide
Bartrop, Paul R.

A comprehensive academic survey with entries about the leaders, ideas, movements, and events pertaining to one of the most devastating conflicts of the late twentieth century.

Also evaluates the various strategies adopted by members of the international community in trying to bring the Yugoslav War to an end and includes a selection of historical documents.

Genocide in Bosnia: the Policy of “Ethnic Cleansing”
Cigar, Norman L.

In this compelling and thorough study, Cigar sets out to prove that genocide in Bosnia-Herzegovina is not simply the unintentional result of civil war nor the unfortunate by-product of rabid nationalism.

Genocide is, he contends, the planned and direct consequence of conscious policy decisions taken by the Serbian establishment in Serbia and Bosnia-Herzegovina.

Fires of Hatred: Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth-Century Europe
Naimark, Norman M.

Naimark, a distinguished historian of Europe and Russia, provides an insightful analysis of ethnic cleansing and its relationship to genocide and population transfer, and discusses the war crimes and the crimes against humanity that occurred in Bosnia and Kosovo during the last decade of the twentieth century.

Srebrenica: Record of a War Crime
Honig, Jan Willem, and Norbert Both

A critical analysis of the the largest single war crime committed in Europe since the end of World War II, examining the failure of the Dutch UN troops to prevent the massacre from occurring.

Under the UN Flag: the International Community and the Srebrenica Genocide
Nuhanović, Hasan

Nuhanović was born on 2 April 1968 in Zvornik, Bosnia and Herzegovina, to Bosnian-Muslim parents. In 1992, his family fled to the town of Srebrenica, which the United Nations designated as a “safe zone” in 1993, housing over sixty thousand refugees.

He worked as an interpreter to the Canadian and Dutch peacekeepers. He survived the massacre of the Bosniaks as he was an UN employee. His family did not. 

The book includes eyewitness accounts of the Bosniak citizens and refugees, analyzing the failure of the UN-sanctioned peacekeepers to protect the local population from the Serbian military forces.

Genocide on the Drina River
Bećirević, Edina

Bećirević, Professor of Security Studies at the University of Sarajevo and a survivor of the genocide that occurred in Bosnia and Herzegovina from 1992 through 1995, examines the war crimes and crimes against humanity committed by Serbs against Bosnian Muslims, arguing that the atrocities fully meet the criteria for genocide established after World War II by the United Nations Genocide Convention of 1948.

She also contextualizes the East Bosnian program of atrocities with respect to broader scholarly debates about the nature of genocide.

Rape Warfare: the Hidden Genocide in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatia
Allen, Beverly

Examines the “military policy of rape for the purpose of genocide,” implemented by Serbian soldiers in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatia during the recent conflict in the region.

This book documents the existence of rape/death camps in which women were detained and raped repeatedly, often with the goal of impregnating them or as a form of torture before death.

A Village Destroyed, May 14, 1999: War Crimes in Kosovo
Abrahams, Fred, and Eric Stover

An investigative account of the massacre of Kosovar Albanians that occurred in the village of Cuska, perpetuated by Serbian security forces.

Includes testimonies from the survivors, which were collected by Human Rights Watch, a research and advocacy organization that monitors abuses in more than seventy countries around the world.


Rwandan Genocide: the Essential Reference Guide
Herr, Alexis

Tracing the history of Rwanda prior to, during, and after German and Belgian colonization of Rwanda through the present day, this helpful reference source scrutinizes the historical events that determined how and why the Rwandan Genocide occurred and discusses the memory, history, and legacy of the atrocity both within and outside of Rwanda.

It contains a selection of twenty key primary source documents.

Visual History Archive
University of Southern California Shoah Foundation

A comprehensive, growing collection of audio-visual interviews with witnesses and survivors of the Holocaust and other genocides, including the Nanjing Massacre, genocide against the Tutsi in Rwanda, Armenian Genocide, Guatemalan Genocide, and the Cambodian Genocide.

The testimonies preserved by the VHA were recorded in sixty-two countries and forty-one languages.

Becoming Human Again: An Oral History of the Rwanda Genocide Against the Tutsi
Miller, Donald E.

A powerful oral history of the tragedy and its aftermath from the perspective of its survivors, based on in-depth interviews conducted over the course of fifteen years.

Surviving the Slaughter: the Ordeal of a Rwandan Refugee in Zaire
Umutesi, Marie Béatrice

The only eyewitness account published in English of eyewitness account of the refugee camps in Zaire, where many Hutu refugees were trampled and murdered.

Others died from hunger, exhaustion, and sickness, or simply vanished, ignored by the international community and betrayed by humanitarian organizations.

Amidst this brutality, day-to-day suffering, and desperate survival, Umutesi managed to organize the camps to improve the quality of life for women and children.

Shake Hands with the Devil: the Failure of Humanity in Rwanda
Dallaire, Roméo A., and Brent Beardsley

A first-hand description of the genocide by a Canadian artillery officer and the Force Commander of the UN intervention in Rwanda. An unsparing eyewitness account of the failure by humanity to stop the genocide, despite timely warnings.

When Victims Become Killers: Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda
Mamdani, Mahmood

The author is recognized as one of Africa’s best-known intellectuals. He analyzes the historical, geographical, and political forces that made it possible for so many Hutu to turn so brutally on their neighbors.

He finds answers in the nature of political identities generated during colonialism, in the failures of the nationalist revolution to transcend these identities, and in regional demographic and political currents that reach well beyond Rwanda.

Genocide in Rwanda: Complicity of the Churches?
Rittner, Carol, et al., editors

Provides a variety of perspectives through which to assess the complex questions and issues surrounding the complicity of the Christian churches in the genocide.

Contributors include scholars, educators, church officials, and some eyewitnesses.

The Rwanda Crisis: History of a Genocide
Prunier, Gérard

The most widely cited academic examination of the genocide. Prunier demonstrates how the struggle for cultural dominance and subjugation among the Hutu and Tutsi was exploited by Europeans.

The Order of Genocide: Race, Power, and War in Rwanda
Straus, Scott

Presents substantial new evidence about local patterns of violence, using original research (including comprehensive surveys of the convicted perpetrators) to assess competing theories about the causes and dynamics of the genocide.

Gender and the Genocide in Rwanda: Women as Rescuers and Perpetrators
Brown, Sara E.

The scholar (who is the Executive Director of Chhange, the Center for Holocaust, Human Rights and Genocide Education) seeks to answer three questions: first, how were certain Rwandan women mobilized to participate in genocide, and by whom?

Second, what were the specific actions of women during this period of violence and upheaval? Finally, what were the trajectories of women rescuers and perpetrators after the genocide?


Communalism, Caste and Hindu Nationalism: The Violence in Gujarat
Shani, Ornit

Examines the rise of Hindu nationalism, asking why distinct groups of Hindus, deeply divided by caste, mobilized on the basis of unitary Hindu nationalism, and why the Hindu nationalist rhetoric about the threat of the impoverished Muslim minority was so persuasive to the Hindu majority.

Pogrom in Gujarat: Hindu Nationalism and Anti-Muslim Violence in India
Parvis Ghassem-Fachandi

An ethnographic account of collective violence in which the doctrine of ahimsa—or nonviolence—and the closely associated practices of vegetarianism became implicated by legitimating what they formally disavow.

Ghassem-Fachandi demonstrates how the vegetarian sensibilities of Hindus and the language of sacrifice were manipulated to provoke disgust against Muslims and mobilize the aspiring middle classes across caste and class differences in the name of Hindu nationalism.

The Clash Within Democracy, Religious Violence, and India’s Future
Nussbaum, Martha C.

Horrified by the violence of the Gujarat pogroms, Nussbaum examines how the forces of the “Hindu Right,” whose growing power and virulent anti-Muslim invective threatens the fabric of the state and pose a disturbing threat to its democratic traditions and secular state in India, 

Women and Genocide: Gendered Experiences of Violence, Survival, and Resistance
DiGeorgio-Lutz, JoAnn, and Donna Gosbee, editors

Drawing from narratives, memoirs, testimonies, and literature, this revisit genocides of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, from Armenia in 1915 to Gujarat in 2002, examining the roles of women as victims, witnesses, survivors, and rescuers.

Darfur & South Sudan

An Oral and Documentary History of the Darfur Genocide
Totten, Samuel

Stories of survivors of the genocide, accompanied by a collection of official documents delineating the international community’s reaction to the crisis in Darfur (including reports and briefs from issued by the United States, the United Nations, and the International Criminal Court.

The collection is a result of the interviews the author conducted with two dozen Sudanese refugees. They fled their homes and made their way to the neighboring country of Chad, recording their experiences prior to the war, during various genocide events, and following their escape.

Living a Genocide: The Children of Darfur
Olaka, Musa Wakhungu, et al.

An online exhibition organized by the University of South Florida Libraries including drawings by Darfuri children living in refugee camps in Eastern Chad. They represent eyewitness accounts of atrocities committed by the Janjaweed militia group and Sudanese government forces as they attacked unarmed civilians in the Darfur region of Sudan from 2003 through 2006.

Darfur and the Crime of Genocide
Hagan, John, and Wenona Rymond-Richmond

In 2004, the United States Department of State gathered more than a thousand interviews from refugees in Chad. They verified the testimonies which Colin Powell presented to the United Nations and the U.S. Congress about the Darfur genocide.

The survey languished in the archives as the killing continued. This book fully analyzes the results of the survey, examining  the ambivalence of the American government toward the genocide and why scholars deemphasize racial aspects of the atrocity.

Failure to Prevent Gross Human Rights Violations in Darfur: Warnings to and Responses by International Decision Makers (2003–2005)
Grünfeld, Fred, and Wessel N. Vermeulen

The book looks at the role of states and international organizations in their attempts to prevent the genocide in Darfur, from early warning to limited action in the field of humanitarian assistance, mediation, sanctions and peace-keeping.

Darfur: A 21st-Century Genocide
Prunier, Gérard. 3rd ed.

Explains what lies behind the conflict in Western Sudan, its origins, causes, and relevance to the future of Africa. The third edition features a new chapter covering events through mid-2008.

Saviors and Survivors: Darfur, Politics, and the War on Terror
Mamdani, Mahmood

Studies the crisis in Darfur within the context of the history of Sudan and examines the world’s response to that crisis.

Darfur’s Sorrow: the Forgotten History of a Humanitarian Disaster
Daly, M.W. 2nd ed.

The political, economic, environmental, and social factors that gave rise to the current humanitarian crisis are discussed in detail, as is the course of Darfur’s rebellion, its brutal suppression by the Sudanese government, and the lawless brigands known as janjawid.

World and Darfur: International Response to Crimes Against Humanity in Western Sudan
Grzyb, Amanda F., editor

This updated edition of this important book contains essays by prolific genocide scholars from a range of disciplines (social history, art history, military history, African studies, media studies, literature, political science, and sociology) to provide a cohesive and nuanced understanding of the international response to the crisis in Western Sudan.

Contributing authors are Eric Reeves, Frank Chalk, Eric Markusen, and Samuel Totten, among other academics.

Genocide in Darfur: Investigating the Atrocities in the Sudan
Totten, Samuel, and Eric Markusen

This book is comprised of essays from contributors who were involved in designing the Darfur Atrocities Documentation.

Based on their investigation, US Secretary of State Colin Powell formally announced that “genocide has occurred in Darfur and may still be occurring.”

Other contributors are US government and nongovernmental organization (NGO) officials involved in the genesis of the project as well as the analysis of the data and numerous scholars, not all of whom were directly involved with the project, who critique aspects of the documentation project as well as its significance.

War and Genocide in South Sudan
Pinaud, Clémence

This book explores the relationship between predatory wealth accumulation, state formation, and extreme ethnic group entitlement with genocidal potential in South Sudan. It traces the rise of a predatory state during the second civil war (1983–2005) and its transformation into a violent Dinka ethnocracy after independence that waged genocide against non-Dinka civilians in the third civil war (2013–).

Rohingya Crisis

Amnesty International

A comprehensive, continually updated report on the current scale of the human rights violations occurring across the country, including news, commentary, and audio-visual dispatches on the Rohingya refugees and their experiences during the current internal armed conflict between the military and ethnic armed groups.

Human Rights Watch

A wealth of material documenting the violence and repression that the Rohingya people are currently experiencing under the Myanmar government.

News reports, dispatches, and videos published by Human Rights Watch, a research and advocacy organization that monitors abuses in more than seventy countries around the world.

Myanmar / Burma
Genocide Watch

The latest alert issued by Genocide Watch concerning the situation in Myanmar is genocide emergency for the Rohingya people.

The organization has the mandate to prevent, stop, and punish genocide and publishes the latest developments on the events unfolding in the country.

Burmas’s Path to Genocide
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

An interactive exhibition documenting how the Rohingya, a religious and ethnic minority in Burma, became targets of a sustained campaign of genocide. It includes photographic evidence and personal stories chronicling the Rohingya experience in Burma.

“Tell Them We’re Human” What Canada and the World Can do About the Rohingya Crisis
Rae, Bob

A comprehensive report detailing the humanitarian crisis that was a direct result of the violence perpetuated against the Rohingya people in August 2017. They were forced to leave their homes in Rakhine State and subsequently seek help in neighbouring Bangladesh.

Rae, a former politician and diplomat, was appointed as Special Envoy to Myanmar by Prime Minister Trudeau to investigate the underlying causes of the crisis. The report was released in April 2018, providing recommendations on Canada’s response to the crisis.

Also consult Canada’s Response to the Rohingya Crisis in Myanmar and Bangladesh for background information.

The Rohingyas: Inside Myanmar’s Hidden Genocide
Ibrahim, Azeem

he Rohingya are a Muslim group who live in Rakhine state (formerly Arakan state) in western Myanmar (Burma), a majority Buddhist country. According to the United Nations, they are one of the most persecuted minorities in the world.

They suffer routine discrimination at the hands of neighboring Buddhist Rakhine groups, are denied citizenship rights in the country of their birth, and also face severe limitations on many aspects of an ordinary life, such as marriage or movement around the country.

Myanmar’s “Rohingya” Conflict
Ware, Anthony, and Costas Laoutides

Explores the tripartite conflict between the Rohingya, Rakhine and Burman ethnic groups and offers a new analysis of the complexities of the conflict.

The Rohingya Crisis: A Moral, Ethnographic, and Policy Assessment
Swazo, Norman K., et al.

Provides a history of the ethnic persecution of the Rohingyas in Myanmar and their disputed ethnic and national identity.

It focuses on how the crisis has morphed into a geopolitical encounter between Bangladesh, China, India, and Myanmar. It further explores the moral, ethnographic, and public policy issues in the humanitarian response to the crisis of the Rohingya people.

The Rohingya Crisis: Analyses, Responses, and Peacebuilding Avenues
Ahmed, Kawser, and Helal Mohiuddin

Ahmed and Mohiuddin identify the defining characteristics of the Rohingya identity, analyze the conflict, and depict the geo-economic and geo-political factors contributing to the conflict.


An Independent Legal Analysis of the Russian Federation’s Breaches of the Genocide Convention in Ukraine and the Duty to Prevent
New Lines Institute for Strategy and Policy and the Raoul Wallenberg Centre for Human Rights

The report is a result of independent inquiry into the crimes committed by the Russian forces against Ukrainian civilians in March and April 2022 during the Russian invasion of Ukraine. It concludes that the Russian Federation “bears State responsibility for breaches of Article II and Article III (c) of the Genocide Convention to which it is bound.”

New Lines Institute for Strategy and Policy is a nonpartisan American think tank.

“Russia’s Genocide Handbook: The Evidence of Atrocity and of Intent Mounts”
Snyder, Timothy
“What’s Happening in Ukraine is Genocide. Period.”
Finkel, Eugene
Ukraine: Apparent War Crimes in Russia-Controlled Areas, Summary Executions, Other Grave Abuses by Russian Forces
United Nations Human Rights Watch

The report, published on April 3, 2022, details the violations committed by the occupying Russian forces against Ukrainian civilians in occupied areas of the Chernihiv, Kharkiv, and Kyiv between February 27 and March 14, 2022.

Russia’s War on Ukraine: All the Latest News and Updates
Amnesty International

The most recent developments associated with the efforts of Amnesty International to document the violations of human rights and international humanitarian law perpetuated by the Russian Federation during its invasion of Ukraine. 

The observations are collected by the organization’s team of researchers and its Crisis Evidence Lab.